I am an Associate Professor in the department of History and International Studies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). I graduated with a DPhil (Politics) from St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford where I did a dissertation that touched on the idea of institutions and institutional change. I believe that issues on institutional quality have not been given enough attention especially when understanding the nature of change, be it in the area of politics, public policy, international relations and public administration. I go with the idea that states have distinct institutional character and that such character is a product of states’ social, political and economic experiences and trajectories. While, agency and rational choice are important considerations to any change process, there are also examples when decisions need take into view institutional considerations. Policy judgement and prescription oftentimes are forced to adopt deeper appreciation of state’s unique political, historical, social and economic trajectories.

I do not confine my works to any particular discipline of social science. My interest lies at the intersection of politics, economics and social and even historical concerns. Such interest on institutions and change has led me to an eclectic range of projects – from politics, economics and political economy to public policies and administration. I have authored two books. I recently co-authored a book on institutional change and the Malaysian bureaucracy. Another book, Malaysia’s State Formation: Small Steps and Large Outcomes of a Contested Leviathan, will be released in 2024. I am also working on another book project, Political change in Southeast Asia.

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