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PoliticsPublic PolicySoutheast Asia

When Institutions “Bite”

This is my latest article on political change; why change can be so difficult. As much as we want change and expect change agents who champion the promise of political change to deliver on their reform promises, we are usually left disappointed. This article explains that actors are not able to make the change because that institutions do “bite”, that is, as much as they want change, change agents (actors who are actively seeking reform) are themselves highly dependent on existing institutional qualities, the so-called rules of the game. We discussed the issues of path dependence, increasing returns, and dense institutional networks describing that actors remain highly invested in existing institutional mixes resulting in a botched democratisation effort. For a full read access this link:

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